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Touch for Health is not used for the diagnosis or treatment of disease or serious medical conditions and emergencies. Seek appropriate professional health care in these situations. Abstract by Earl Cook with Dr. In AK and the chiropractic profession, the muscle test is used as a complementary diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Osteopathy, Scott C Cuthbert and George J Goodheart, Jr. MMT since 1915, when the first peer-reviewed publication occurred.
The MMT employed by chiropractors, physical therapists, and neurologists was shown to be a clinically useful tool, but its ultimate scientific validation and application requires testing that employs sophisticated research models in the areas of neurophysiology, biomechanics, RCTs, and statistical analysis. In other studies, the following results have been found. These findings suggest a neurologic basis for manual muscle testing. Fatigue results in a less efficient muscle process. Muscles subjectively testing “Weak” or “Strong” yield effects significantly different from fatigue.
Over-all, significant differences were found in muscle-test responses between congruent and incongruent semantic stimuli. Remembering Wellness in Touch for Health Kinesiology – a History, Context and Vision for Touch For Health, the First 25 Years and the Next Millennium. Objective measurement of proprioceptive technique consequences on muscular maximal voluntary contraction during manual muscle testing. Electromyographic effects of fatigue and task repetition on the validity of estimates of strong and weak muscles in applied kinesiological muscle-testing procedures. Somatosensory evoked potential changes during muscle testing. Leisman G, Shambaugh P, Ferentz AH. Interexaminer agreement for applied kinesiology manual muscle testing.
Applied Kinesiology unreliable for assessing nutrient status. Kenney JJ, Clemens R, Forsythe KD. Muscle test comparisons of congruent and incongruent self-referential statements. Monti DA, Sinnott J, Marchese M, Kunkel EJ, Greeson JM. Intrarater reliability of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynametric muscle testing.
Perot C, Meldener R, Goubel F. A preliminary inquiry into manual muscle testing response in phobic and control subjects exposed to threatening stimuli. Correlation of Applied Kinesiology Muscle Testing Findings with Serum Immunoglobulin Levels for Food Allergies. AK Manual Muscle Testing: As Reliable As The Deep Tendon Reflex? Can the Ileocecal Valve Point Predict Low Back Pain Using Manual Muscle Testing? What are you Doing about Muscle Weakness?
Can ankle imbalance be a risk factor for tensor fascia lata muscle weakness? What Are You Doing About Muscle Weakness? Muscle Imbalance: The Goodheart and Janda Models. Bridges between whole-body dysfunctions and the feet: The close examination with Applied Kinesiology. The accuracy and precision of kinesiology-style manual muscle testing: designing and implementing a series of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Does chiropractic have an answer for recurrent ankle sprains?
Manual muscle tests evaluate the ability of the nervous system to adapt the muscle to meet the changing pressure of the examiner’s test. This requires that the examiner be trained in the anatomy, physiology, and neurology of muscle function. The action of the muscle being tested, as well as the role of synergistic muscles, must be understood. Manual muscle testing is both a science and an art.
In physical therapy research, the “break test” is the procedure most commonly used for MMT, and it has been extensively studied . This method of MMT is also the main test used in chiropractic, developed originally from the work of Kendall and Kendall . In physical therapy the “break test” has the following operational definition . The subject is instructed to contract the tested muscle maximally in the vector that “isolates” the muscle. The examiner resists this pressure until the examiner detects no increase in force against his hand. At this point an additional small force is exerted at a tangent to the arc created by the body part being tested.
As tools, our hands are the most sensitive, fine tuned instruments available. One hand of the examiner positions and stabilizes the part adjacent to the tested part. The other hand determines the pain-free range of motion and guides the tested part into precise test position, giving the appropriate amount of pressure to determine the strength. All the while this instrument we call the hand is hooked up to the most marvelous computer ever created. Presently the best ‘instrument’ to perform manual muscle testing is a well-trained examiner, using his perception of time and force with knowledge of anatomy and physiology of muscle testing.
Cuthbert and Goodheart conclude by saying, “Regardless of the methods or equipment one uses to standardize MMT in a clinical or research setting, it is most important that the test protocol be highly reproducible by the original examiner and by others. MMT in its methodology were reviewed, including studies on the clinical efficacy of MMT in the diagnosis of patients with symptomatology. With regard to analysis there is evidence for good reliability and validity in the use of MMT for patients with neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction. Green BN, Gin RH: George Goodheart, Jr. Walther DS: Applied Kinesiology, Chapter 6.